Sputtering is another way of physical vapor deposition.
What is sputtering technology?
Sputtering is another way of physical vapor deposition technology. The process of sputtering is to bombard the surface of the target material by ions. Inert gas, such as argon, is charged into the vacuum chamber. By using high voltage, glow discharge is generated to accelerate the ions to the target surface. Argon ions bombard (sputter) the target material from the surface and deposit it on the workpiece in front of the target. Other gases, such as nitrogen and acetylene, are usually used to react with the sputtered target material, Compound films are formed. Sputtering technology can prepare a variety of coatings, and has many advantages in decorative coatings (such as Ti, Cr, Zr and carbonitride). Because the coatings prepared by sputtering technology are very smooth, this advantage makes sputtering technology also widely used in the automotive market in the field of Tribology (such as CrN, Cr2N and various kinds of diamond (DLC) coatings). High energy ions bombard the target, extract the atoms and transform them into gas. Magnetron sputtering technology can be used to sputter a large number of materials.
Advantages of sputtering technology:
+The target is water-cooled to reduce thermal radiation
+Almost any metal material can be sputtered as a target without decomposition
+The insulating material can also be sputtered by using RF or intermediate frequency power supply
+Preparation of oxide possible (reactive sputtering)
+Good coating uniformity
+Very smooth coating (no droplets)
+The cathode (up to 2m long) can be placed in any position, which improves the flexibility of equipment design
The disadvantages of sputtering technology are as follows
-Compared with arc technology, the deposition rate is lower
-Compared with the arc, the plasma density is lower (~ 5%), and the adhesion and density of the coating are lower
+ 磁控溅射 使用磁场保持靶材前面等离子体，强化离子的轰击，提高等离子体密度。
+ UBM 溅射是非平衡磁控溅射的缩写。使用增强的磁场线圈加强工件附近的等离子密度。可以得到更加致密的涂层。在UBM过程中使用了更高的能量，所以温度也会相应升高。
+ 闭合场溅射 运用磁场分布限制等离子体于闭合场内。降低靶材材料对真空腔室的损失并使等离子体更加靠近工件。可以得到致密涂层，并且使真空腔室保持相对清洁。
+ HIPIMS+ （高功率脉冲磁控溅射）采用高脉冲电源提高溅射材料的离化率。运用HIPIMS+ 制备的涂层兼具了电弧技术和溅射技术的优点。HIPIMS+ 形成致密涂层，具有良好涂层结合力，同时也是原子级的光滑和无缺陷的涂层。
There are many forms of sputtering technology. Here we will explain some of them. These sputtering technologies can be realized on the vacuum coating equipment produced by Zhicheng vacuum technology.
+Magnetron sputtering uses magnetic field to keep plasma in front of target, strengthen ion bombardment and improve plasma density.
+UBM sputtering is the abbreviation of unbalanced magnetron sputtering. An enhanced magnetic field coil is used to enhance the plasma density near the workpiece. A more compact coating can be obtained. Higher energy is used in the UBM process, so the temperature will rise accordingly.
+Closed field sputtering uses the distribution of magnetic field to confine the plasma in the closed field. It can reduce the loss of the target material to the vacuum chamber and make the plasma closer to the workpiece. A dense coating can be obtained and the vacuum chamber can be kept relatively clean.
+Twin target sputtering (DMS) is a technique for depositing insulator coatings. Alternating current (AC) acts on two cathodes instead of direct current (DC) between the cathode and the vacuum chamber. In this way, the target has the function of self-cleaning. Twin target magnetron sputtering is used for high-speed deposition of oxide coatings.
+Hipims + (high power pulsed magnetron sputtering) uses high pulse power supply to improve the ionization rate of sputtered materials. The coating prepared by hipims + has the advantages of both arc technology and sputtering technology. Hipims + forms a dense coating with good adhesion, and is also an atomic smooth and defect free coating.