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真空镀膜机PVD镀膜基础知识介绍

发布时间:2021-07-14阅读量:11
导读:在PVD真空镀膜设备行业也是一样,需要从PVD真空镀膜设备基础知识从浅入升。比如镀膜设备结构、原理、技术、机器后期的维护 ...

       进入一个新行业,都是需要从最基础的知识开始了解,逐渐慢慢再深入研究。在PVD真空镀膜设备行业也是一样,需要从PVD真空镀膜设备基础知识从浅入升。比如镀膜设备结构、原理、技术、机器后期的维护,及最后的产品镀膜整体效果完成,都需要一步一个脚印。那么致诚科技为大家详细介绍一下PVD真空镀膜机镀膜行业五条基础知识,想进入或准备进入真空行业伙伴,可以参考学习:

       一、PVD(物理气相沉积)技术主要分为三类,真空蒸发镀膜、真空溅射镀膜和真空离子镀膜。相对于PVD技术的三个分类,相应的真空镀膜设备也就有真空蒸发镀膜机、真空溅射镀膜机和真空离子镀膜机。近十多年来,真空离子镀技术的发展是最快的,它已经成为了当代最先进的表面处理方法之一。我们通常所说的PVD镀膜,指的就是真空离子镀膜;通常所说的PVD镀膜机,指的也就是真空离子镀膜机
       二、离子镀膜设备(PVD镀膜)技术,其原理是在真空条件下,采用低电压、大电流的电弧放电技术,利用气体放电使靶材蒸发并使被蒸发物质电离,在电场的作用下,使被蒸发物质或其反应产物沉积在工件上。PVD镀膜与传统的化学电镀的相同点是,两者都属于表面处理的范畴,都是通过一定的方式使一种材料覆盖在另一种材料的表面。两者的不同点是:PVD镀膜膜层与工件表面的结合力更大,膜层的硬度更高,耐磨性和耐腐蚀性更好,膜层的性能也更稳定;PVD镀膜可以镀的膜层的种类更为广泛,可以镀出的各种膜层的颜色也更多更漂亮;PVD镀膜不会产生有毒或有污染的物质。
       三、在现阶段,PVD镀膜是不能取代化学电镀的,并且除了在不锈钢材料表面可直接进行PVD镀膜外,在很多其他材料(如锌合金、铜、铁等)的工件上进行PVD镀膜前,都需要先对它们进行化学电镀Cr(铬)。PVD镀膜主要应用在一些比较高档的五金制品上,对那些价格较低的五金制品通常也只是进行化学电镀而不做PVD镀膜。采用PVD镀膜技术镀出的膜层,具有高硬度、高耐磨性(低摩擦系数)、很好的耐腐蚀性和化学稳定性等特点,膜层的寿命更长;同时膜层能够大幅度提高工件的外观装饰性能。
       四、PVD膜层能直接镀在不锈钢以及硬质合金上,对锌合金、铜、铁等压铸件应先进行化学电镀铬,然后才适合镀PVD。PVD镀膜技术是一种能够真正获得微米级镀层且无污染的环保型表面处理方法,它能够制备各种单一金属膜(如铝、钛、锆、铬等)、氮化物膜(TiN[钛金]、ZrN〔锆金〕、CrN、TiAlN)和碳化物膜(TiC、TiCN),以及氧化物膜(如TiO等)。PVD镀膜膜层的厚度为微米级,厚度较薄,一般为0.1μm~5μm,其中装饰镀膜膜层的厚度一般为0.1μm~1μm,因此可以在几乎不影响工件原来尺寸的情况下提高工件表面的各种物理性能和化学性能,并能够维持工件尺寸基本不变,镀后不须再加工。
       五、PVD镀膜技术的应用主要分为两大类:装饰镀和工具镀。装饰镀的目的主要是为了改善工件的外观装饰性能和色泽同时使工件更耐磨耐腐蚀延长其使用寿命;这方面主要应用五金行业的各个领域,如门窗五金、锁具、卫浴五金等行业。工具镀的目的主要是为了提高工件的表面硬度和耐磨性,降低表面的摩擦系数,提高工件的使用寿命;这方面主要应用在各种刀剪、车削刀具(如车刀、刨刀、铣刀、钻头等等)等产品中
       PVD真空镀膜设备基础知识不仅仅只有上面五条,比如按照类型来分光学、装饰、卷绕、硬质涂层等等,类型不一样,相关的设备知识,也有区别。


To enter a new industry, we need to start with the most basic knowledge, and gradually study it in depth. In the PVD vacuum coating equipment industry is the same, need from the PVD vacuum coating machine basic knowledge from shallow to upgrade. For example, the structure, principle, technology of the coating equipment, the later maintenance of the machine, and the completion of the overall effect of the final product coating all need to be done step by step. Then Huicheng vacuum editor will introduce the five basic knowledge of PVD vacuum coater coating industry in detail. If you want to enter or prepare to enter the vacuum industry partner, you can refer to:

        1、 PVD (physical vapor deposition) technology is mainly divided into three categories: vacuum evaporation coating, vacuum sputtering coating and vacuum ion coating. Compared with the three categories of PVD technology, the corresponding vacuum coating equipment includes vacuum evaporation coating machine, vacuum sputtering coating machine and vacuum ion coating machine. In recent ten years, the development of vacuum ion plating technology is the fastest, it has become one of the most advanced surface treatment methods. What we usually call PVD coating is vacuum ion coating; Generally speaking, the PVD coater refers to the vacuum ion coater

        2、 The principle of ion plating (PVD) technology is to use low voltage and high current arc discharge technology under vacuum conditions. The target is evaporated and the evaporated material is ionized by gas discharge. Under the action of electric field, the evaporated material or its reaction product is deposited on the workpiece. The similarities between PVD coating and traditional electroless plating are that both of them belong to the category of surface treatment, and both of them make one material cover the surface of another material in a certain way. The differences between them are: the adhesion between PVD coating and workpiece surface is greater, the hardness of the coating is higher, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance are better, and the performance of the coating is more stable; PVD coating can be plated on a wider range of film types, can be plated on a variety of film colors are more beautiful; PVD coating will not produce toxic or polluting substances.

        3、 At present, PVD coating can not replace chemical plating, and in addition to direct PVD coating on the surface of stainless steel, chemical plating Cr (chromium) is needed before PVD coating on many other materials (such as zinc alloy, copper, iron, etc.). PVD coating is mainly used in some high-end hardware products. For those hardware products with low price, it is usually only chemical plating instead of PVD coating. The PVD coating has the characteristics of high hardness, high wear resistance (low friction coefficient), good corrosion resistance and chemical stability; At the same time, the film can greatly improve the decorative performance of the workpiece.

        4、 PVD film can be directly plated on stainless steel and cemented carbide. For zinc alloy, copper, iron and other die castings, chemical chromium plating should be carried out before PVD coating. PVD coating technology is a kind of environmental protection surface treatment method which can truly obtain micron scale coating without pollution. It can prepare various single metal films (such as aluminum, titanium, zirconium, chromium, etc.), nitride films (tin [titanium], ZrN [zirconium], CrN, TiAlN), carbide films (tic, TiCN), and oxide films (such as TiO, etc.). The thickness of PVD coating is micron level, which is generally 0.1 μ m~5 μ m. The thickness of decorative coating is generally 0.1 μ m~1 μ m. Therefore, the physical and chemical properties of the surface of the workpiece can be improved without affecting the original size of the workpiece, and the size of the workpiece can be maintained basically unchanged without further processing.

        5、 The application of PVD coating technology is mainly divided into two categories: decorative coating and tool coating. The main purpose of decorative plating is to improve the decorative performance and color of the workpiece, make the workpiece more wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant, and extend its service life; This is mainly used in various fields of hardware industry, such as door and window hardware, lock, bathroom hardware and other industries. The main purpose of tool plating is to improve the surface hardness and wear resistance of the workpiece, reduce the friction coefficient of the surface and improve the service life of the workpiece; This aspect is mainly used in a variety of cutting tools, turning tools (such as turning tools, planers, milling cutters, drill bits, etc.) and other products

        The basic knowledge of PVD vacuum coating machine is not only the above five items, such as optics, decoration, winding, hard coating, etc. according to the type, there are differences between the types and the related equipment 

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